We often talk about giving people the benefit of the doubt, but seldom talk about its opposite, to the point that no agreed upon phrase for it exists. The best I could come up with is the “burden of doubt”, which largely applies to courtroom settings. Even with the help of judicial documents, the phrase is not very popular.
And yet we give people the burden of doubt just as often as we give people the benefit of it. When I am in a bad mood and a stranger cuts me off, I give them the burden of my doubt as to whether they intended it. When I am feeling happy and lucky it is easy to give them the benefit of the doubt instead.
It might be better for the world if I could always give the benefit of the doubt to people, but at least fluctuations based on my mood aren’t particularly unfair. Of course our decisions in these matters are also influenced by things like race, gender, and other kinds of in-group/out-group status. Racism and sexism are sometimes viciously overt but more often they take the form of giving the benefit of the doubt to men and/or to white people, and the burden of the doubt to women and/or people of color. For instance, when a black woman complains about the way a match is being refereed. She acts in a similar way to many white men, but they are given the benefit of the doubt while she is given the burden of it. A study of political candidates found that “ambiguity boosts support for white male candidates but not for black male candidates. In fact, black male candidates who make ambiguous statements are actually punished for doing so by racially prejudiced voters.”
Our world is filled with uncertainty. We are constantly deciding whether or not to give people or groups of people the benefit or the burden of the doubt. But it’s not enough to make these decisions in isolation. We must look for patterns in how we distribute the weight.